Gooseberry - studded berry
Which of us has not tried this wonderful berry? And what a jam is obtained from gooseberries! This is one of the most common plants in our gardens and, undoubtedly, one of the most beloved. Early classifications distinguished between two genera: Currant (Ribes) and Gooseberry (Grossularia) More widely distributed monographs recognize only one genus Ribes. The cross-similarity between the different types of currants and gooseberries, ultimately, led to the concept of one genus. All that a gardener needs to know about growing gooseberries - planting, care, reproduction - in this article.
- Botanical Description
- Choosing a place to plant gooseberries
- Gooseberry Planting
- Gooseberry Care
- Harvesting and storage of gooseberries
- Gooseberry propagation
- Gooseberry Diseases and Pests
Gooseberryor rejected gooseberry, or European gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) - a species of plants of the subgenus Grossularia (Gooseberry), the genus Currant (Ribes), the gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae).
It is a small shrub up to 1-1.2 m high, with dark gray or dark brown peeling bark. The branches are three-parted, less often - simple spines of leaf origin. Young shoots are cylindrical, grayish, planted with thin needle spikes and small black dots. Leaf scar with three traces. The buds are brown, covered with numerous red scales, along the edge with pubescent white hairs. The kidneys sit in the axils of the thorns (spines) or above the tripartite spines.
Leafy leaves, roundish or heart-ovate, up to 6 cm long, short pubescent and dull. A leaf blade with 3-5 blades and a blunt edge. The flowers are bisexual, greenish or reddish, single or 2-3 in the axils of the leaves. Hypanthium, like sepals, is pubescent. It blooms in May.
Fruits — berries, oval or almost spherical, up to 12 mm long, glabrous or coarse bristly, with well-marked veins. Green, yellow or purple. Ripen in June-August.
Choosing a place to plant gooseberries
Gooseberry is photophilous, it needs to be planted in open sunny places, protected from strong winds. It responds well to soil fertility. It does not tolerate waterlogging (the root of the neck rot), it is much better put up with temporary drought. He also does not like nearby groundwater - it is desirable that their level be no closer than 1.5 m from the surface of the earth. If the groundwater is higher than 0.8 m, then the bush should be planted on the soil padding cushion with a height of 0.3-0.5 m and a width of 0.8-1 m.
If there is not enough free space on the site, you can place the gooseberry between young fruit trees, but the distance from the trees to the bushes should be at least 2 m. You can also plant gooseberries along the border of the site or along the fence so that the plantings are separated from buildings and fences less than 1.5 m.
Gooseberries prefer light medium loamy soils. If the soil in the area is sandy or heavy clay, add clay or sand, respectively. He does not like acidified soil. If the acidity index (pH) is higher than 5.5, then lime is added to the planting - at least 200 g per 1 sq. Km. m. In order for the gooseberry to grow and develop well, the land at the planting site must be carefully weeded.
It is not advisable to plant a bush in a place where currants or raspberries grew before that - the soil will be greatly depleted, and the diseases and pests common to these crops will surely fall upon a “new one”.
Gooseberries can be planted in spring and autumn, but the best planting date is autumn (from late September to mid-October), since by late autumn the planted plants manage to take root and form new young roots. With spring planting, the survival rate and shoot growth are usually worse.
It must be remembered that gooseberries are prickly, it is inconvenient to weed, so you need to clean the area well in the autumn before planting from root shoot weeds, primarily wheat grass.
To do this, in early autumn, they dig a plot under the gooseberry, carefully choosing all the rhizomes of weeds. After digging, the soil is carefully leveled with a rake with metal teeth, breaking all the clods of the earth.
For autumn planting, pits under the gooseberries are dug up in 2-3 weeks, so that the soil has time to settle. Pits are dug with a depth and width of 50 cm. The upper fertile layer is laid in one direction, the lower infertile layer in the other. Then add to the fertile pile: 8-10 kg of humus or well-rotted manure, 50 g of double superphosphate, 40 g of potassium sulfate. All components mix well. These fertilizers are enough for plants for three years. If the soil is clay, then 1 bucket of coarse river sand is added to the pit.
For planting, pure-grained, healthy annual or biennial seedlings are used that have a well-developed system (with roots at least 25-30 cm long) and the ground part of 3-4 strong shoots. When planting such seedlings, plants begin to bear fruit earlier. Before planting, damaged or dried parts of roots and branches are removed from seedlings. You can soak the roots for one day in liquid organic fertilizers: 3-4 tablespoons of sodium humate in 5 liters of water. After this, the roots take root faster.
The plant is planted directly or slightly with a slope with a deepening of the root neck at 5-6 cm below the soil level. They make sure that the roots are well spread. Then, holding the plant by the stem, the roots are covered with soil. Land thrown to the roots is gradually being compacted. In this case, the seedling is shaken slightly so that the earth evenly fills all the voids around the roots.
After filling the pit, the plants are watered, about a bucket of water in the pit, and then the space under the bush is mulched with dry peat or humus with a layer of 2-3 cm in order to reduce moisture evaporation and prevent crust formation. After planting, shoots are cut off from the seedling, leaving 5-6 buds above the soil surface.
Gooseberry care comes down to pruning, fertilizing, watering, loosening, weed control, pests and diseases. Trimming gooseberries is carried out during the rest period: in late autumn or early spring. Sections with a diameter of more than 8-10 mm are preferably covered with var. To combat diseases and pests in early spring in early April, in the snow, gooseberry bushes from a watering can are watered with boiling water, be sure to spray. In May, it is necessary to dig the soil around the bushes and under them and, if necessary, fertilize with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and / or diluted manure infusion along the perimeter of the crown of the bush and retreat a little further.
Gooseberry bush bears fruit for 10-15 years or more and carries a significant amount of nutrients from the soil. Therefore, to obtain stably high yields, annual application of organic and mineral fertilizers is required: for half a bucket of compost - 50 g of superphosphate, 25 g of potassium sulfate, 25 g of ammonium sulfate. Under the abundant fruiting large bush, the fertilizer rate is doubled.
Under the bush, the soil should be loosened, covering up fertilizers; dig the soil outside the crown without damaging the roots. After flowering and after another 2-3 weeks, fertilizing with mullein solution (1: 5) is carried out at the rate of 5-10 liters per bush.
In dry, hot weather, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture. Gooseberry bushes should be watered under the root, this reduces the incidence of plants. Do not water plants by sprinkling, especially cold water.
To get larger berries of the gooseberry dessert, an additional early summer pruning of soft green shoots, which are not needed for growth, is performed.
They leave 5-6 leaves and one berry in each brush. Due to this technique, very large gooseberry fruits can be obtained. Cut branches are burned to produce ash or stacked in a compost heap.
Gooseberry fruit buds are laid in the second half of summer. Therefore, when harvesting, we must remember and take care of the harvest of the next year, i.e. provide bushes with food and moisture during this period.
Harvesting and storage of gooseberries
Gooseberries, unlike other berry crops, are harvested at different stages of ripeness. For processing for jam, berries are best picked at the stage of technical ripeness, when they are still hard, but have already acquired the color characteristic of ripe berries of this variety. And for fresh consumption, berries are picked when they have reached full ripeness: then they are soft and much sweeter. It is especially important to give varieties with yellow, white and red fruits to ripen on the bush so that they acquire the most intense color.
Gooseberries are not accidentally called "northern grapes." Its berries are somewhat reminiscent of grape, and in addition, they produce wine, which is considered to be the best among fruit and berry wines and approaches the quality of grape wines. At home, preparing dessert wine from gooseberries is relatively simple. To do this, add about the same amount of water and 350 grams of sugar to a liter of pure juice. Next, the wine is prepared according to conventional technology. It becomes harmonious and soft in taste after about six months.
Gooseberries can be propagated by seeds, layering, green cuttings. During seed propagation, varietal characters are not preserved. Most of the seedlings often deviate toward wild species with all the undesirable attributes: strong spikes, small berries, etc. Therefore, seed propagation of gooseberries is used mainly when breeding new varieties.
Gooseberry vegetative propagation has been used for a long time. It allows you to fix valuable varietal traits that accumulated and were selected in the process of selection.
Currently, gooseberries are vegetatively propagated, mainly in two ways: using horizontal layers and rooting of green cuttings, followed by growing in the nursery. Planting material of two years of age is more reliable for laying plantings in production conditions (and garden gardens).
Propagation by horizontal layering
In early spring, the soil under the bush is well loosened, fertilized, leveled, watered. The branches are firmly pinned to the ground with wooden or wire hooks, sprinkled with earth after 2 and 4 weeks (with a layer of 5-6 cm). In autumn, rooted layers are dug up and separated from the bushes. The yield of rooted shoots depends on the strength of the development of the uterine bushes, on the accurate and timely implementation of agrotechnical measures. Such shoots receive up to 60-80, and in some cases up to 300-400 from the bush.
Growth buds on bent shoots, as a rule, are clearly visible and give rise to future rooted plants. Thus, 2470 shoots were rooted in the Russky cultivar from 2480 buds, 1856 shoots in the Russky yellow shoot (95.6%) in Malachite, 620-620 (99.5%) in Malachite, and 353 shoots in the weakly prickly No. 3 out of 410 (86 %).
The number of kidneys is directly dependent on the biological characteristics of the variety. The bushes of Chernomore are vigorous, directly growing, branches are thin, numerous, as a result of which a bush is thickened. There are fewer rooted shoots. On the uterine sites of this variety, it is necessary to thin out the branches in the bushes, leave the most healthy and strong shoots.
Branches of any age (from 10 to 18 per bush) can be used for layering, choosing strongly overgrown, with a larger number of growths compared to others. Moreover, from one branch you can get from 8 to 19 rooted shoots.
Rooting green cuttings
Another more modern way of propagating gooseberries is the rooting of green cuttings in special rooms with a polyethylene shelter and a fogging device. The substrate for this is prepared well aerated - from peat and sand, which must be maintained healthy, without the accumulation of infections.
Indoor air temperature should not exceed plus 25 degrees, water spray should be thin, close to fog. Under optimal conditions, the growth length and condition of the root system by the end of summer is such that most plants can be planted at a permanent place in the year of cuttings, bypassing growing in the nursery. So, in the Russky variety, rooted cuttings are up to 76-88, in the Smena - 72-90, Yubileiny - 77-94 percent.
The green gooseberry cuttings react very quickly to frequent violations of various agricultural conditions, and then all the leaves turn black and fall off - the roots form weakly or completely lose this ability. As a result, the percentage of rooted cuttings in varieties Russky 50-61, Russky yellow - 44-78, and in the weakly prickly No. 3 - 37-55.
Thus, the high potential ability of new gooseberry varieties to root due to their genetic origin makes it possible to obtain the required number of rooted plants every year when growing planting material. In this case, both methods of rooting are used.
Gooseberry Diseases and Pests
Gooseberries are especially susceptible to two diseases - powdery mildew (sferotek) and septoria (white spotting). More than other insect pests, gooseberry moth and yellow gooseberry sawfly annoy him.
Most modern gooseberry varieties are resistant to the sphere library. However, the disease acts selectively - it affects young plants more. Therefore, they need protection - treatment with “Topaz”, “Vectra” or “Strobi” preparations (doses and method of application are indicated on the packages). The first spraying - after the leaves are blooming, over the buds. The second - in 10-14 days.
There are no varieties that are absolutely resistant to Septoria. Before flowering and after harvesting, it is necessary to treat the bushes and the soil beneath them with “Oxychloride” and “Skor”, in the fall it is necessary to apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers and dig the soil under the bushes.
Against the moth and sawfly, bushes are sprayed in the early spring (after bud isolation, and also immediately after flowering) with karbofos or biological products - bitoxibacillin or lepidocide. In the autumn, they dig the ground under the bushes to a depth of 8–10 cm and spud in the radius of the crown so that a soil cushion 10–12 cm high is formed. In the spring, two weeks after flowering, the bushes are healed.
Gooseberries are a wonderful plant with delicious berries, and, of course, it is worthy to grow in every area! Do you have gooseberries growing? Share your experience in caring for him in the comments.