Sweet cherries. Varieties and cultivation
Cherry - a berry that has come to the table of residents of different countries, has thousands of years. For the first time, these ancient berries were tasted by the ancient Romans, resting on a vacation in the small town of Kerasunte, and gave them the name Kerasunta fruits. Since berries were liked not only by soldiers, but also by birds, a clarifying definition was added to the name - bird. Kerasunti bird fruits, having passed through hundreds of definitions and descriptions, got their name in Latin Cerasus avium, in translation - "bird cherry". About the best varieties of cherries for different regions and agricultural techniques for its cultivation - our article.
- The history of sweet cherry cultivation in Europe
- Botanical characteristics of cherries
- Varieties of sweet cherries for cultivation in suburban areas
- Growing and caring for cherries in summer cottages
- Protection of cherries from diseases and pests
The history of sweet cherry cultivation in Europe
In some countries, to this day, there is a popular name for cherries - "sweet cherry", "early cherry". The fact that cherries and cherries are different cultures, although they belong to the same family, was determined by botanists only in 1491.
In the foreseeable past, according to the descriptions of travelers-researchers of nature, wild cherries freely grew under the natural conditions of the countries of the Mediterranean, East and Central China and other countries of Asia Minor. According to excavations and descriptions, cherries were grown in the gardens of Pontius back in 73 BC.
The Romans brought cherries to Europe, and already in the 2nd century it occupied its niche in the German Gardens. In the Middle Ages, Western and Central Europe, northern Italy, southern Sweden recognized the taste of the extraordinary berries of gigantic trees. In Europe, cherry gardening is about 2 thousand years old.
In Russia, the first cherry seedlings appeared in the 12th century, first in the south, and then gradually, thanks to natural scientists, selection and the work of breeders, this crop began to move north to colder regions.
Currently, sweet cherries are successfully cultivated on an industrial scale and in private gardens in the southern regions of the CIS countries (in Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia). In Russia (in warm regions), cherry trees occupy vast areas in the Krasnodar Territory and the Caucasus. Since the second half of the 20th century, cherries have been growing in private gardens on the latitude of the Moscow Region and St. Petersburg, in some regions of the Far East and Siberia.
Botanical characteristics of cherries
Cherry in the plant system
In the plant system, it belongs to the family of pink, belongs to the genus "Plum", a type of "Cherry" with the international scientific name Prunus avium. An equivalent and more common name for sweet cherry is the synonym (in the scientific literature) Cerasus avium bird cherry. In Russia and the CIS countries it is called sweet cherry.
Short description of cherries
Sweet cherry is a perennial plant of a group of trees of the first magnitude. Under natural conditions, the height of the trees reaches 10-20 m in height. The culture is characterized by rapid growth at a young age. In one place, cherries can grow up to 75 years, but in the horticultural culture the first 15-20 years are used. The crown of the tree is ovoid, conical, directed upward.
The main location of the cherry root system in the soil is horizontal. Over the years, individual roots change the direction of growth and go deeper into the lower layers to 1.0-1.5 m. A wide branching of the root system forms over time, which must be borne in mind when determining the culture planting pattern.
At a young age, the cherry bark on the stem and perennial skeletal branches is smooth, brownish-red in color, maybe silver. Covered with numerous lentils or stripes. Over time, it can peel off with separate films.
Three types of buds are formed on the crown of sweet cherry, which are located on the growth and fruit shoots:
Sweet cherry leaves are simple, shiny, petiolate, green in shades of different color densities - from light to dark green. Leaf blades are elliptical, obovate, elongated, ovate and other forms with serrated margin. At the base of the petioles 2 glands are located.
Cherry blossoms with a white whisk, actinomorphic, bisexual, in a few floral umbrellas. Blossom before leafy buds.
Cherry fruits are drupes, shiny, on long petioles.
Seeds are in a spherical or slightly elongated bone, topped with a juicy pericarp. The color of the pericarp of a cherry, depending on the variety, can be yellow, light yellow-pink, pink-yellow, red, burgundy, burgundy black (almost black). The size of fruits in cultivated varieties of cherries is from 1.5 to 2.0 cm in diameter.
According to the composition and density of the pulp, the varieties of cherries are divided into 2 groups:
- "Gini", whose berries do not have keeping quality; they are used only fresh;
- "Bigarro", whose dense pulp can be used fresh, transported to other regions, used to make jams, jams, compotes and other products.
Varieties of sweet cherries for cultivation in suburban areas
Cherry in the south marks the onset of summer, as it is the first fruit of the summer season. By early ripening, cherries are second only to honeysuckle berry bushes. Cherry season by region begins in the last decade of May and ends by mid-June.
Modern gardening has more than 4,000 varieties and hybrids of cherries. The 20 meter giants providing delicious bird berries are a thing of the past. Dwarf varieties from 3.5 to 5.0 m appeared, from which it is easy to harvest, protecting it from the voracious flocks of flying "thieves."
Breeders bred new varieties and hybrids of sweet cherries for southerners, special varieties for cold Siberia, dank unstable weather in the middle strip of Russia and the North-West regions, as well as for the Far East blown by sea winds.
The state register includes more than 40 varieties of cherries, of which:
- the largest fruits form the cherries Tyutchevka and Iput;
- late varieties of regionalized cherries - Tyutchevka, Veda, Golubushka, Lezginka, French black, Annushka;
- the earliest zoned ones are Goryanka, Iput, Ariadna, Dana, Dessert, Dagestanka;
- the most winter-hardy cherries for the north of Russia, including Siberia and the Far East - Rechitsa, Odrinka, Tyutchevka, Revna, Bryanskaya pink, Bigarro Burlat, Sweet cherry Sakhalinskaya, Ordynka;
- early ripe cherries - Ovstuzhenka early, Tyutchevka, Fatezh, Symphony.
Sweet cherries are self-infertile and always need pollinators. In the garden, it is optimal to plant 3-4 trees. Good pollinators are Iput, Veda, Sheepskin.
Cherries for your garden can also be selected by the color of the fruits:
- Pink cherry: Pink pearls, Bryansk pink, Leningrad pink, Oryol pink, Pink sunset.
- Red-fruited cherries: Teremoshka, Red Hill, Iput, in memory of Astakhov, Raditsa, Valery Chkalov.
- Yellow cherries: Drogana yellow, Zhurba, Chermashnaya.
Varieties of cherries for Central Russia
The following sweet cherry varieties for central Russia are characterized by the following data:
- The most winter-hardy varieties. Frosts are not terrible to -32 ° C.
- They are resistant to spring return frosts.
- The taste qualities of berries on a tasting 5 point scale are 4.5-5.0 points for the varieties listed below.
- The vast majority of varieties belong to the Bigarro group.
- Sustainable crops form from 4-5 years of life.
Northern, Pink Sunset, Tyutchevka, Red Hill, Fatezh, Memory of Syubarova, Revna, Ovstuzhenka, Bryanochka, Raditsa, Rechetsa, Iput, Bryanskaya pink, Teremoshka, Prime, Leningrad pink, Sinyavskaya, Italian, Oryol pink and others.
Varieties of cherries for the Central Black Earth Region
The state registry for the central chernozem region includes 10 varieties of cherries, of which almost 7 are time-tested:
Early pink, Italian, Iput, Beauty Zhukova, Ariadne, Homeland, Orlovskaya Fairy, Orlovskaya pink, Adeline, Poetry.
Referring to the annual catalog of fruit crop varieties, it is possible to select sweet cherry varieties recommended for the more southern regions of central Russia for the central chernozem zone (more balanced by weather conditions).
When selecting a variety of cherries, you must pay attention to the weather conditions of the area in the spring. It is more practical to select early-ripening varieties of medium and late ripening. If there are no spring return frosts with significant negative temperatures in the area, you can stop at early varieties.
When choosing cherries, the main thing is that they are zoned to the climatic conditions of the area of residence.
Varieties of cherries for the North-West region of Russia
Specially for the North-Western regions there are no cherries. They must be late and early. That is, their early flowering is excluded and rapid ripening is necessary. Of the varieties of cherries recommended for the middle zone, Tyutchevka, Fatezh, Symphony took root in the Leningrad Region.
Seda and Yurga varieties of medium-late and medium ripening are under development for the North-West region. Currently they are undergoing varietal tests for their introduction into the State Register.
Varieties of cherries for Siberia
Of the varieties of cherries bred for central Russia, the most frost-resistant and late-flowering for the northern regions of Russia can be used. Why late blooming? To avoid spring frosts. Moreover, given the self-fertility of the culture, they must be planted at least 2-x-3 different varieties.
The best varieties of cherries recognized for the North of Russiacharacterized by high frost resistance (-30 ... -32 ° С): Rechitsa, Revna, Symphony, Odrinka, Tyutchevka, Bryanskaya pink, Fatezh.
In private areas of experimental gardening enthusiasts, harvests of medium-ripening cherry varieties are obtained: Northern, Leningrad pink, In memory of Astakhov.
Varieties of cherries for the Far East
In the Far East, in the regions of developed agriculture (Khabarovsk Territory, Primorye, etc.), cherries are grown and bear fruit in private gardens: Sweet cherry Sakhalin, Ordynka, Bigarro Burlat, Sweet cherry pink.
Almost every year, harvests of cherries of the varieties Francis, Ariadne, and Dragan yellow are obtained.
Growing and caring for cherries in summer cottages
Sweet cherry is a moderately warm climate culture. In the northern ones, characterized by long frosts, they shelter trees for the winter. Semi-spreading sweet cherry varieties were developed specifically for such regions.
Cherry soil requirement
All types of fertile soils, both loamy and loamy, are suitable for cherries. Poor sandy loamy soils, gravelly in arid regions are not suitable for cherries. The culture does not tolerate areas with a high level of aquifer occurrence. If the groundwater is at a level of 1.5 meters from the soil surface, the cherry cannot be planted. The root system of the culture will be in constant high humidity, which will lead to rotting of the roots.
The planting period of cherry seedlings
In the southern regions, sweet cherry seedlings are planted in autumn in late October - November. Before the onset of constant cooling, the roots of the seedling will take root, and it will winter well. In such regions, seedlings can be planted in the spring.
In regions with the early onset of constant cooling, planting is best done in early spring. During the summer season, sweet cherry seedlings take root well in warmer soil and grow in warm weather. In the winter they will leave completely accustomed.
Rules for planting cherry seedlings
Cherry varieties grafted on tall scions are planted in a row after 4-5 meters and in row spacing of at least 7 m. Using varieties on medium and weak rootstocks, rows and row spacings leave 6x4 and 4x3 meters, respectively.
Before planting inspect the cherry seedling. Only the broken roots are removed, the rest are not cut, and in the soil, so as not to break, they are slightly bent.
- A landing pit is dug up to the size of the root.
- Drainage is laid at the bottom.
- Humus and nitrophosphate 50-60 g are added to the pit. The mixture is thoroughly mixed.
- A mound is formed along which the roots are straightened.
- Landing for better closure with the soil is compacted and watered. Mulch.
- If necessary, perform post-landing pruning.
During the autumn planting, the cherries’s stem is sheltered for the winter, measures are taken to protect against damage by hares, mice and other pests.
In the aisles of young plantings, you can temporarily grow vegetables. On depleted soils, it is better to increase soil fertility by crops of green manure.
From 2 to 3 years of age, the crown of cherries is formed. They clean the stem from the side branches, remove the shoots, shorten the leading central shoot. It is removed on a side shoot.
Usually the culture is used up to 15 years, and then replaced with a young seedling. At a later date, the tree dramatically reduces productivity, begins to hurt.
Cherry top dressing
Spending a large amount of nutrients on flowering and then on the formation of fruits, cherries need additional nutrition. Most of the flowers and ovaries fall as a result of the natural process of self-regulation of the emerging crop.
Starting from the 5th year of life, organic and mineral fertilizers are annually applied under the sweet cherry. The rate of mineral tuks depends on the fertility of the soil and ranges (depending on the age of the crop) from 70 to 200 g under a tree. Tuky spread the diameter of the crown under irrigation. You can previously carefully cut the furrows along the edge of the crown or drill holes where to fill the fertilizer.
Of mineral fertilizers, it is better to use nitroammophoska or nitrophoska. Introduce tuks before flowering.
Once every 3-4 years in the fall, 1-3 buckets of humus or compost are placed under the tree for small termination.
With prolonged dry weather, trees are watered, but only in the first half of the season. About 20-30 days before the main harvest, watering is stopped. Berries crack and rot. Some varieties reduce keeping quality during transport.
Crown Crown Formation
When growing several trees in a private garden, the formation of a sparse-tier or vase-shaped crown is used.
With a tier-rarefied form, 3 tiers of skeletal branches are laid. On the first tier 3-4, the second 2-3 and on the last 1-2 branches. The distance between tiers on the central shoot of sweet cherry is 60-80 cm.
With a cup-shaped crown, one tier of 4-5 branches is formed. The central conductor is removed. Such crowns of cherries are more practical. The tree is not high, the crown is light. It is easy to care for her, to harvest and protect from bird raids (special nets are available for sale).
Sanitary pruning and thinning of the crown of cherries (if necessary) are carried out annually. If necessary, especially in weakly branching varieties, a shortened pruning of shoots is carried out, up to 1/3 of the growth. Pruning is best done in early spring or summer after harvesting.
Protection of cherries from diseases and pests
Cherries are much less likely and less affected by diseases than cherries. Of the diseases, gardeners are most familiar with hole spotting (kleasterosporiosis), gray rot of stone fruits (moniliosis), cocomycosis, and a bacterial burn. Outbreaks of fungal diseases are most often observed during cold rainy summers with abundant dews and temperatures in the range + 15 ... + 16 ° С.In cold regions, the processing of gardens must be carried out without fail, in accordance with the recommendations for combating diseases.
Antifungal fungicides and solutions of other pesticides (Bordeaux liquid, vitriol, Skor, Horus, Khom, Abiga-Peak) can be used once for early spring treatments. From coccomycosis and moniliosis, cherries can be treated with mycosan, according to official recommendations. During the growing season, it is necessary to switch to biological preparations phytosporin-M, trichodermin, pentophagus and others. All drugs are used strictly according to the recommendations. Otherwise, the effect of the application may not occur.
Of the pests most damaging to the cherry are different types of cherry aphids, a cherry fly, a cherry mucous sawfly. There are recommendations that Actellik-500 EC is effective on a cherry fly. It is used during the summer flies, the berries at this time begin to ripen (turn pink). Do you need such a drug? The choice is yours.
Effective infusion of Dalmatian chamomile. 200 g of dry material (buy at the pharmacy) pour 1 liter of water and leave for 12 hours. This is a mother liquor. Add 5 l of water. Filtered. Spray. Spray at least 2 weeks before harvest. Dalmatian daisy is poisonous. And its solution is far from harmless, although it is prepared from grass.
Since cherry pests mainly work actively in the warm period, which coincides with the formation of the crop, it is better to use tank mixtures of bioinsecticides (bitoxibacillin, lepidocide, nemabact and others) to fight biofungicides. The drugs are effective in the warm period of time. Safe for the health of adults and children, birds and animals. Almost the entire summer season can be applied. Work with biological products as recommended.
Dear readers! The article does not list all varieties of cherries. Doses of fertilizers and preparations for diseases and pests are tentatively recommended. If you are interested in the article, write to us. Share what remedies you use, how effective they are. According to what scheme do you fertilize cherries and do you fertilize annually or according to your own (other) scheme. Readers will read your comments with pleasure and discuss them.