General characteristics of cultivated edible mushrooms.
Currently, 10-12 species of edible mushrooms can be considered quite suitable for artificial cultivation. These include, from soil saprotrophs, champignons bicuspid and double-ring; a ring, or stropharia wrinkled-ring; edible volvarilla, shaggy dung beetle, rowaceae violet; from xylotrophs - oyster mushroom, Spitake, summer mushrooms, winter mushroom and some others. Of these, in the conditions of our republic in the household plots, at home and in special mushroom-growing farms, the following species can be successfully grown.
Champignon double-thoracic - Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach. - became one of the high-yielding crops in more than 70 countries of the world: its collection per turnover reaches 15-20 kg / m2.
The fruiting bodies of this fungus look like a hat sitting on the central leg. The hat in diameter reaches 5-10 cm. At first it is semicircular, later it is convex, convex-outstretched, sometimes scaly in the center, various in color - from whitish to dirty brown with different shades, lighter at the edges. According to the color of the fruiting bodies, three forms of champignon of the two-planted are distinguished - white, cream and brown. The flesh of the hat is whitish, dense, juicy, at the break it is painted in a pinkish or reddish color, sour in taste, has a smell. The discs are free, thin, frequent, initially pink, later with a reddish tinge, with overripe mushrooms - brown or black. The mass of ripened spores is dark brown. Two spores are formed in champignon bicuspid on two spores (in other species of champignon - four). They naturally germinate on humus-rich soils, on overripe manure, on forest glades, pastures, meadows, in parks and gardens. Fruits champignon bicuspid from June to October. It has a high nutritional value.
Two-ring champignon - Agaricus bitorquis (Quel.) Sacc. - in appearance it differs only in the presence of a double ring on the leg, as well as in its ability to grow at relatively high air temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations in the substrate. Therefore, this species is more promising for cultivation in the southern regions.
Ring-shaped, or stroparia wrinkled-ring, - Stropharia rugosoannulata Farlov - first described in the USA in 1922. Naturally found in North America and in Europe. It grows on well-fertilized soils, plant debris, usually outside the forest, on grassy places, in vegetable gardens, and occasionally in deciduous forests.
The fruit bodies of the ring in the form of a hat with a central leg. Hat color varies
from taupe to chestnut red. In the early stage of development, it is covered with thickenings, which then disappear; white specks remain in their place. The diameter of the cap reaches 20-25 cm. The leg is white, 10-15 cm high, thick, fleshy. The plates are initially white, later their color changes from bluish-gray to black-violet. Between the hat and the leg is a star-shaped cotton shell. The ring also has valuable nutritional properties and is suitable for all types of cooking. The taste is comparable to champignon.
Oyster mushroom - Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm. - is one of the most common in vivo edible mushrooms. It occurs in autumn in forests and parks, usually on the stumps and trunks of drying and shrunken deciduous trees (willow, poplar, maple, etc.), often in hollows. Grows in large groups, as if suspended from a substrate (hence the name - oyster mushroom).
The following fungal ecotypes are distinguished depending on the growing conditions: Pleurotus pulmonarius, Pleurotus cornucopiiae, Plcurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus satignus. They are often considered independent species. They differ in appearance, in microscopic and genetic characters, in chemical composition, resistance to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases, and in the ability to tolerate long-term storage and transportation. But all these mushrooms are a high-quality food product containing various organic compounds and mineral salts. Their taste and smell may vary slightly depending on the substrate on which they grow.
The fruit bodies of oyster mushroom in the form of hats with a diameter of 5-15 cm, occasionally up to 30 cm. The hat is fleshy, irregularly rounded, convex-prostrate, smooth, glabrous, fibrous, of various colors (gray-brown, dark ash-gray, bluish blackish, whitish), sometimes with a white mycelial coating. Its central part is concave, the edges are bent. The plates are white or whitish, even, arranged more or less closely, to one degree or another, fall to the leg. The leg is eccentric, white, dense, at the base it is often hairy, sometimes barely noticeable or completely absent. The pulp is white; when cut in air, its color does not change.
For the fungus at different phases of the life cycle, different temperature conditions are necessary. 23–27 ° С are optimal for the growth of mycelium, at a temperature below or slightly above the optimum, its growth slows down, and generally stops at less than 5 ° С and more than 30 ° С. Depending on the temperature needs for the initiation of fruiting and the development of fruiting bodies, ecological types of oyster mushrooms are distinguished between “winter” and “summer” types. The "winter" type includes strains of local ecotypes. For their fruiting, a temperature of 13 + 2 ° C is necessary. The “summer" type includes Florida oyster mushroom strains. It bears fruit at a higher temperature. Strains of the first type give large, dense, well-preserved fruiting bodies. The strains of the second type are characterized by smaller, fragile fruiting bodies and a shorter period of mycelial growth in the substrate.
At present, hybrids are obtained by crossing “winter” and “summer” strains, characterized by a long, almost year-round fruiting period and high qualities of fruiting bodies.
Shiitake (Shiitake), or edible lentinus, - Lentinus cdodes (Berk.) Sing. - one of the most valuable edible mushrooms. Under natural conditions, it grows in bright forest glades. It is found in countries of Southeast Asia. Here this mushroom has been grown under artificial conditions for more than 2000 years, especially widely - in Japan. Recently, it began to be cultivated in the United States, as well as in several European countries.
By way of life, this fungus is a saprotroph - lives on dead wood of oak, hornbeam, chestnut, birch (it does not develop on living trees). It uses cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and sugar for nutrition. Fruits in spring (at the beginning of flowering plums) and in autumn. The fungus has rather large fruiting bodies - sometimes up to 20 cm in diameter (more often - 5-10 cm). The hat is convex at a young age, flattenes over time, and a depression sometimes appears in its central part. The surface of the cap of mature fruit bodies is dry, fractured, with white depressions and gray shaggy scales, fringed at the edges. Color depending on age and lighting conditions varies from light brownish yellow to dark brown. The pulp of the mushroom is fleshy, white, brownish directly under the skin. The plates are loose, initially yellowish-white, with time become brownish. The stiff leg is cylindrical, 1-1.5 cm thick, 3-5 cm long, whitish or brownish in color.
Fresh shiitake fruit bodies have a pleasant aroma and taste. They contain valuable nutrients, substances that lower plasma cholesterol, as well as the polysaccharide lentinan. Lentinan regulates the immune system, slows down the development of malignant tumors, prevents chemical carcinogenicity, and has antiviral properties. Lentinan is currently in clinical use.
In Japan, it has long been believed that shiitake prolongs life. In the US, you can buy it in almost every store with the name "Healthy Food".
Siitake is suitable for all types of cooking, and when dried, its aroma is further enhanced. This mushroom can be eaten raw.
© voir ci-dessous / see below
Honey agaric - Kuehncromyces mutabilis (Fr.) Sing, ct Smith. - wood-destroying fungus. Under natural conditions, it grows in large groups on dead wood of many deciduous species (hornbeam, maple, birch, linden, aspen, apple tree, beech, chestnut, etc.), usually on stumps, dead wood, dead trees. It is less common on coniferous wood, and occasionally on stone fruit trees. The mycelium of this fungus is snow-white, at first lush, with time it hardens and becomes light beige. It penetrates wood relatively quickly, causing its gradual destruction. The fruiting of the fungus occurs after the mycelium has mastered a significant part of the substrate and accumulates a certain amount of nutrients. On living trees, summer mushrooms usually do not develop.
Summer honey agaric is found everywhere in Belarus, Russia, the Ukraine and the Caucasus, in Western Europe, Asia, and North America. It bears fruit from June to October. Under favorable conditions, the fruiting bodies of this fungus form several times during the growing season. In 1969, the German researcher Walter Luthard noticed that the summer mushroom has varieties (races) that differ in their attitude to temperature fluctuations and productivity. Under optimal conditions, some of them form fruiting bodies during the growing season at least three times. In this case, the second layer (wave) of fruiting, as a rule, is more productive.
The fruiting bodies of the summer honey agaric are similar in appearance to those of the autumn honey agaric, but differ in a darker color. The cap of the fruiting body of the summer honeypench reaches 3–6 cm in diameter. At a young age, it is semicircular, then becomes flat-convex, and in adulthood, it is almost open, watery, its edges drop. In the center of the hat is a wide, rounded tubercle. Its outer surface is silky-fibrous, yellowish-brown with a brownish tint, darker along the edges in wet weather. The flesh of the cap is soft, whitish with a brownish tint, has a pleasant mushroom smell and taste. The plates of the hat are narrow, often fused with the leg, initially light cream, with age becoming brown. The central leg, initially cylindrical, becomes hollow, ligneous with age; in length varies from 3 to 8 cm, in thickness - from 0.3 to 1 cm. It is reddish-brown in color, lighter at the top, flaky-scaly, velvety, dark at the bottom, almost black. The hat closure ring at a young age is the same color as the top of the leg. Sometimes it disappears, leaving a clear mark. Spore powder is brown.
Summer honey agaric as a valuable edible mushroom is widely cultivated in many countries of the world.
© Walter J. Pilsak
Winter mushroom, or velvet-legged flammulin, - Flammulina velutipes (Curt, ex Fr.) Sing. - It is distributed very widely throughout the Republic of Belarus, as well as in Europe, Siberia, and the Far East. Under natural conditions, it develops on the wood of dead and damaged growing trees of many deciduous species (poplar, linden, willow, etc.), as well as on the stumps of felled trees. Occasionally found on conifers. In Belarus, it is not well known as an edible mushroom.
Unlike other edible mushrooms, the winter mushroom forms fruiting bodies at low air temperatures (up to 2-5 ° С); in particular, in Belarus most often - at the end of autumn, sometimes in winter during the thaw period, as well as in March or April. In severe frosts, they, covered with snow, freeze through, and during the thaw they can come to life again and grow further.
The fruiting bodies of a winter mushroom in the form of a hat on a leg. The cap is 2 to 10 cm in diameter, round-convex at a young age, then becomes flat, slightly ridge at the edges. Its upper surface is smooth, often mucous, usually yellowish or creamy, sometimes brownish in the middle, slightly striped along the edge. The flesh of the cap is thick, soft, with a yellowish tinge, with a pleasant mushroom taste and smell. Lamellae are frequent, thin, slightly adhered to the peduncle, yellowish-brown, dentate-dentate at the edges. The leg of the fruiting body is central, cylindrical (length up to 5-8 cm, thickness 0.5-0.8 cm), dense, elastic, fibrous-velvety, blackish-brown. The spores are oval smooth, creamy white.
Winter mushroom synthesizes biologically active substances such as, for example, flammulin (it inhibits the growth of cancers, has an antiviral effect), and therefore is widely cultivated (on the waste of the woodworking industry and agricultural production).
© Petra Korlevic
- E. S. Raptunovich, N. I. Fedorov Artificial cultivation of edible mushrooms.