Chokeberry pressure won
The birthplace of the plant is North America. At first, this plant was used only as a decorative one in Europe and in Russia. Only in the 19th century, Michurin drew attention to chokeberry, realizing that it brings juicy fruits, suitable for selection and very unpretentious. And now the chokeberry aronia (the scientific name for chokeberry) is growing almost everywhere.
Description of Chokeberry
ChokeberryLatin -Aronica melanocarpa L.
Aronia, or chokeberry, is a shrub up to 3 m high, with a compact and then spreading (up to 2 m in diameter) crown. In the bush there can be up to 50 trunks of different ages. Mountain ash is winter-hardy, it is undemanding to soils, photophilous, resistant to pests and diseases, tolerates transplantation. One of the earliest crops, as 1-2 years after planting, plants begin to bear fruit.
Chokeberry is widely known and is grown in orchards as a fruit and medicinal crop.
Fruits are rounded, with a diameter of up to 1.3 cm, black, shiny, juicy, sour-sweet with an astringent tart flavor. The fruits contain many useful substances - sugar, pectin, malic, ascorbic, folic acid, carotene, citrine (vitamin P). As well as trace elements - iron, iodine, manganese, etc. Chokeberry fruits are useful for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gastritis with low acidity, kidney disease, rheumatism, to lower blood cholesterol, etc.
Jam, compote, jam, jelly, juice are brewed from the fruits, while all medicinal properties are preserved.
History of chokeberry
On swamps, along the shores of lakes and streams in vast territories of eastern North America, there is a low shrub that forms a lot of growth, with small, almost black fruits - chokeberry.
Probably, only a specialist would be able to find a similarity between this shrub and that popular plant that has been grown in our gardens for half a century and is commonly called "black chokeberry". In total, up to 20 species of chokeberry are found in the USA and Canada. Some who are too "active" are treated like a weed. But when culture came to Europe (and this was three hundred years ago), the chokeberry aronia, slaly-leaved chokeberry and arbutus-leaved chokeberry, the first to settle in the Old World, became the pride of botanical gardens. Another century passed - and the choke reached Russia.
We also perceived it for a very long time exclusively as a decorative culture. But the ability of the chokeberry to survive harsh winters, its stability and unpretentiousness interested Ivan Michurin.
Having received the seeds of chokeberry aronia from Germany, he began to cross seedlings with distantly related plants (presumably mountain ash). As a result, a new culture was created, which Michurin called chokeberry - for the similarity of fruits with the fruits of mountain ash. (In fact, it is not a mountain ash, although by a number of signs it has been close to mountain ash and pears. For fifty years now, the aronia has been singled out as an independent genus - Aronia.)
The resulting culture “grew” to 2–2.5 m and turned out to be very attractive in appearance: flexible shoots, leathery dark green rounded leaves that take on a variety of shades in autumn - from bright orange to purple and ruby; delicate, white, lush inflorescences, by September turning into large clusters of shiny black berries. And most importantly, the chokeberry of Michurin is even more winter-hardy than its ancestor.
In the 30s, it passed a “strength test” in Altai and, starting with its conquest of Siberia, gradually spread throughout Russia. As its creator predicted, the chokeberry is successfully cultivated where it is difficult to grow other fruit and berry crops: in the north of the European part, in the harsh conditions of the Urals and Siberia, even in the Arctic: it can withstand frosts of minus 35 ° C.
Not many inhabitants of the garden can compete with the "black-fruited" in yield. From a 6–9-year-old bush you can get 9-10 kg of berries. It gives a crop annually and in any weather. Aronia flowers rarely freeze - late flowering protects them from spring frosts. It is pollinated with insects and wind, with up to 90% of fruits being tied. It comes into fruition early: seedlings delight with the first berries within a year or two after planting, when vaccinated with a cuttings, in the same year. Under suitable conditions, the productive period can last up to 20–25 years.
Fruits are large, up to 1.5 cm, shiny, juicy, sweet and sour, tart, do not crumble to frost. There is no need to hurry with the collection - in September the berries become tastier.
Over time, it turned out that the berries of Chokeberry are not just useful - they are healing, and this is recognized by official medicine. The composition of its fruits is unique. The combination of vitamins P and C is of particular value. Moreover, in the content of the first aronia, it is second to none among all fruit, berry and vegetable crops of the middle strip (1 g of fresh berries fully satisfies the daily requirement), and in terms of vitamin C content it approaches lingonberries and cranberries .
The berries are rich in vitamins A, E, B, PP, contain trace elements, including fluorine, iodine, copper, iron, zinc, boron. They are used for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and hypertension. They improve brain activity, have a positive effect on the immune system and the activity of gastric enzymes, help with diabetes, sleep disturbance, overwork, treatment of radiation sickness, and relieve allergic reactions.
Most of the biologically active substances are concentrated in the skin. Not only fresh fruits are useful, but also frozen, dried, juice and even such processed products as jam, jelly, jam, compote. But the fermentation process greatly destroys the complex of useful compounds, although it must be admitted that a very tasty wine is obtained from the "chokeberry".
Contraindications to the use of chokeberry are increased blood coagulation, hypotension, peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, gastritis with high acidity.
Aronia is not only a wonderful honey plant, but also a bee healer - its phytoncide properties are detrimental to many pests and diseases that affect bees, including such dangerous ones as a tick.
Chokeberry can be used in group plantings, in hedges and as a tapeworm. Plants grafted at a height of 1.5 m onto the boles of common mountain ash or hawthorn look especially impressive. You can form them in the shape of a ball.
Aronia is an unpretentious and winter-hardy plant.
Aronia is best planted in the fall. It is not difficult to choose a place for planting, since any soil other than saline is suitable for it. The bulk of the roots is within the projection of the crown to a depth of 50 cm, so it is quite tolerant of the close standing of groundwater.
The distance between plants should be at least 2 m, so that the bushes do not obscure each other. The size of the landing pits is 60x60 cm, the depth is 40–45 cm.
The planting mixture is prepared by mixing the top layer of the earth with 1-2 buckets of humus, compost or peat, add 150 g of superphosphate and 60–70 g of potassium sulfate. The root neck is buried by 1–1.5 cm. Immediately after planting, it is recommended to cut the seedlings, leaving stumps 15–20 cm high with 4–5 buds.
In the first two years of planting, they are fed with ammonium nitrate (50 g per pit). From the age of five, 1–1.5 buckets of humus or compost, up to 70 g of superphosphate and up to 30 g of potassium sulfate are introduced into the trunk circles. The soil is maintained in a sufficiently moist state - this is a necessary condition for a plentiful harvest.
Starting from the seventh-eighth year of fruiting, the crown needs to be thinned out. In the old, neglected plantations, anti-aging pruning is done, cutting down all shoots to the level of the soil. This stimulates the growth of shoots shoots, of which leave no more than ten of the most developed.
Chokeberry is an extremely photophilous crop. It is demanding on soil moisture. It can be planted in areas where an apple tree or a pear will not grow - where groundwater is close. It puts up with a slight acidity of the soil, but bears fruit better on a neutral one. Therefore, when planting, you need to make lime or wood ash.
Chokeberry - a quick crop. In the third year after planting in a permanent place, it already gives the first crop. It features a large shoot-producing ability. Her most productive are branches of age from 4 to 7 years. Fertilization of flowers occurs with the help of insects and wind. The root system of Chokeberry is highly branched, fibrous and penetrates to a depth of 2-3 m. However, their bulk lies in the soil layer up to 60 cm.
It is easy to propagate it by root offspring, parts of the bush, layering, cuttings. Seedlings can be grown from seeds. Planting pits are dug 40 cm deep, 50 cm in diameter. Soil preparation is no different from preparation for other berry crops. A bucket of humus and 60-80 g of superphosphate are introduced into each hole. Aronia is planted at a distance of 2x2.5 m from each other.
Care for chokeberry consists of tillage, weeding, fertilizing, pruning and forming bushes, pest and disease control.
Chokeberry is propagated by seeds, root offspring, layering, dividing the bush, lignified and green cuttings and grafted into the crown or seedling of ordinary mountain ash. The most widely used seed propagation method, based on the property of chokeberry to give relatively the same plants in growth, yield and quality of the fruit. Since this crop still has no varieties, seed propagation remains the main way.
Seed propagation is simple, but requires great attention and compliance with a certain order of stratification. Dry seeds are stored in bags of dense fabric at a temperature not exceeding 5 ° C. Before stratification, bags of seeds for a day are placed in water at a temperature of 18 ° C. Then 10 days they are stored on shelves at room temperature, periodically moistened, or placed in a box filled with moss or sawdust.
After that, the seeds in the box are placed on ice with a layer of 15-20 cm. The bottom is made with a groove for the drain of melt water. Seed bags are also interbedded with pieces of ice. A filled box for 3-4 months is buried in a snow pile 2 m high and covered with plastic wrap, and sawdust or straw from above. Three to four days before sowing, the seeds are brought into a warm room and ventilated.
Seeds can be stratified for 90 days in a basement with a constant temperature of + 4 ... + 5 ° C. To do this, they are mixed with coarse sand in a ratio of 1: 4 or peat - 1: 2. During stratification, the substrate is kept moist.
For sowing seeds, light, fertile soils purified from weeds are selected. Seeds are mixed with sawdust, evenly sown in grooves with a depth of 6-8 cm, sealed with 0.5 cm soil and mulched with a layer of sawdust or humus. To obtain good planting material, seedlings are thinned for the first time during the formation of two true leaves, leaving a distance of 3 cm between them, and the second time in the phase of four or five leaves at a distance of 6 cm. Last thinning is done in the spring of next year with a distance of 10 cm.
To grow seedlings of two years old without transplanting, the distance between the rows is 70-90 cm. In the conditions of the Leningrad region with a protracted and cold spring, it is more profitable to first grow seedlings in sheltered ground (in a greenhouse or in indoor conditions) and dive on three to five real leaves ridges with placement in three or four lines at a distance of 25 cm, in a row - 5-7 cm.
The soil is kept clean from weeds and systematically loosened. Early in spring, nitrogen fertilizer is applied on thawed soil at the rate of 20 g of ammonium nitrate or 5 kg of slurry per 1 m2. By the fall of the 2nd year, seedlings reach a standard size.
Seedlings can be grown by rooting of annual lignified and summer green cuttings. The methods of reproduction are the same as in other berry bushes.
Chokeberry gives rhizome offspring that can be used for planting. After planting, the upper part of the shoot is cut off, leaving 3-5 kidneys. It can be grafted onto an adult tree of a mountain ash ordinary by bark or in a split. The first method is more accessible.
Pests of Chokeberry
This pest is widespread enough. In a year, it damages more than 20% of the fruits of mountain ash. Sometimes found on an apple tree. Pupae hibernate in soil and fallen leaves, so plant debris should be destroyed. A brown-winged butterfly often appears in early summer. About a week after departure, it begins to lay several eggs on the upper part of the fetus. One female is able to lay up to 45 eggs.
Caterpillars are pale red or gray in color. They leave the eggs after two weeks and penetrate into the fetus, laying narrow passages, the caterpillars get to the seeds and gnaw them.
Cherry slimy sawfly
It usually appears around the beginning of July, and by autumn the sawfly already seriously enough damages the leaves of the tree, much less often destroys them completely. The mid-adult insect has a shiny black color, its wings are transparent. The larva has a length of up to 9 mm, a greenish yellow color, is covered with black mucus. Dolly of white color in a dense cocoon of oval shape. The female lays an egg on a leaf of a tree, thereby making an incision inside the leaf. One female is able to lay up to 70 eggs.
The eggs are oval in pale greenish color. On one sheet, approximately 10 eggs can be found. Larvae hatch after about a week. Larvae feed on the leaves for 1 month, then go into the soil, and winter there. To kill the pest, the plants are pollinated with lime or sprayed with a solution of soda ash.
The benefits of aronia
Aronia berries have a pleasant sour-sweet, pungent taste. Aronia is a real storehouse of nutrients! It contains a rich natural complex of vitamins (P, C, E, K, B1, B2, B6, beta-carotene), macro- and microelements (boron, iron, manganese, copper, molybdenum, fluorine), sugars (glucose, sucrose, fructose), pectin and tannins. For example, in the fruits of the chokeberry, vitamin P is 2 times more than in blackcurrant, and 20 times more than in oranges and apples. And the iodine content in blackberries is 4 times higher than in strawberries, gooseberries and raspberries.
The pectin substances contained in chokeberry remove heavy metals and radioactive substances from the body, hold and excrete various types of pathogenic microorganisms. Pectins normalize the functioning of the intestines, eliminate spasms and have a choleretic effect. The healing properties of chokeberry help strengthen the walls of blood vessels, improving their firmness and elasticity.
Also, one of the most useful properties of this berry is the normalization of blood pressure and lowering blood cholesterol. Aronia fruits are prescribed for various disorders in the blood coagulation system, bleeding, rheumatism, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and allergic diseases.Recent studies have shown that chokeberry improves the functioning of the liver, and the regular use of this berry enhances immunity and positively affects the endocrine system.
But, unfortunately, with some diseases, chokeberry may be contraindicated. So, it is not recommended for peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastritis, frequent constipation, hypotension, increased blood clotting and thrombophlebitis.
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