What does raspberry want?
The main goal of any gardener is to get a good harvest of high-quality, delicious fruits or berries. For this, each culture needs careful timely care, compliance with the requirements for growing conditions and agricultural technology. From early spring to late autumn, the gardener works on his site. But so that the works are not in vain, you need to know how to properly care for plants. Today we’ll talk about how to get a big crop from a raspberry plantation ...
Raspberry plantation care consists of watering, weeding, loosening the soil, applying fertilizers, combating diseases and pests, and tying the shoots to the trellis.
The formation of soil crust and the appearance of weeds dramatically reduces the growth of raspberries, therefore, constant timely weeding and cultivation are necessary. The first spring loosening is carried out as early as possible. Timely treatment provides air access to the roots, moisture in the soil lasts longer and favorable and convenient conditions are created for the development of beneficial microorganisms. Aisles are loosened to a depth of about 10-15 cm, and in rows - by 5-8 cm. Loosening and weeding must be completed before buds open, delay with these agricultural methods significantly reduces raspberry productivity. Subsequent treatments are carried out as the soil crust forms and weeds appear; in total, 4-6 loosening per season. The latter is performed with a layer revolution in late autumn, at the end of plant growth. At the same time, pests living on the surface fall into the deep layers of the soil and die, and pests wintering deep in the soil, on the contrary, find themselves on the soil surface and die from winter frosts. You can’t high up the plants for the winter, because the buds from which new shoots develop are laid high above the surface of the soil, and new plants are greatly weakened next year. When mulching a plantation, the need for loosening disappears.
What determines the productivity of raspberries?
Firstly, from timely and sufficient supply of moisture, especially in the south, where it is simply impossible to obtain high yields without artificial irrigation. The most common mistake when watering raspberries is that gardeners water it a little every day. Such irrigation can be considered refreshing, since moisture moistens only the topsoil, without penetrating into the root zone. It is better to carry out more rare, but abundant irrigation, so that the root layer is well soaked (25–35 cm). The number of irrigations is set depending on weather conditions, water reserves in the soil and critical periods of raspberry growth. Watering before flowering and during the period of growth and ripening of berries is very important. During the harvesting period, watering is carried out immediately after the collection of berries, so that by the next collection the land can dry out. Irrigation rate - 30-40 l / m2. In late autumn, to increase moisture reserves before wintering, abundant watering is carried out at the rate of 50-60 l / m2. The more thoroughly this irrigation is completed, the better the shoots will winter.
It must be remembered that waterlogging can cause raspberries no less damage than drought. Its danger lies not only in the fact that air cannot reach the roots, but also in the fact that the soil in this case becomes colder, since solar heat is not spent on its heating, but on the evaporation of moisture. This can greatly delay the development of plants, especially in the spring.
Therefore, the moisture content in the soil should be constantly monitored and stopped during rainy, cool periods of watering.
Watering is carried out in several ways. Sprinkling is widely used in garden areas. Most often they are watered directly from a hose or various irrigation systems are installed. With such methods, the water flow is unreasonably high, since not only a number of plants are watered, but also aisles. More economical irrigation irrigation on furrows. Around the rows of raspberries, earthen rollers are raked up with a height of 10-15 cm, so that the plants are in the groove, which they fill in, simply by putting a hose into it. When watering directly from wells, without heating the water, the earth cools very much, which affects the development and fruiting of raspberries. In addition, when sprinkling and irrigation irrigation is difficult to achieve uniform soil moisture. The most promising is drip irrigation, in which it is possible to strictly dose the supply of water and fertilizers to the roots, the water enters the root zone warmed up, the soil is moistened uniformly in all rows.
Mulching plantations reduces the need for irrigation by 3-4 times.
Raspberry productivity also depends on soil fertility. When making pre-planting norms of fertilizers in the first two years, you can do without fertilizing. However, as crop yields increase, raspberries remove more and more nutrients from the soil. A huge number of batteries are carried out as a result of leaching, as well as with removed weeds, extra annual offspring, etc. All these losses must be made up. In addition, raspberries spend a lot of nutrients on the formation of a large number of root offspring and shoots of substitution. Therefore, starting from the third year of operation, plantations need regular top dressing. Only then can you rely on a high yield of large berries.
Before entering fruiting, plants are fed only with nitrogen fertilizers. In the spring, before cultivating the soil, ammonium nitrate is added - 15-20 g / m2, nitroammophoska - 30-50 g / m2 or 50 g of superphosphate, 15 g of ammonium nitrate and 20-30 g of potash fertilizers under the fruiting stands. After harvesting, 50–80 g of nitroammophoska or 20–30 g of ammonium nitrate, 60 g of superphosphate and 20–30 g of potash fertilizers are applied per 1 m2. At the end of the growing season, starting from the third year, organic fertilizers are applied - 3-4 kg / m2, scattering them under the bushes.
Raspberries form a large number of shoots of substitution and root shoots. If you leave all the shoots that have grown, they will soon take up all the free space on the plantation. It is impossible to take care of thickened plantings, moreover, in such areas soil is quickly depleted, and productivity is greatly reduced. The number of shoots must be normalized. The maximum yield can be obtained with a row width of about 50 cm (or 12-15 shoots per linear meter, or 6-7 shoots per bush). In May, when young shoots grow to 20–25 cm in length, 10–20 shoots are left in the bush, and in the spring of the next year they carry out a final normalization, cutting weak and damaged shoots at the very base, without leaving a hemp. The raspberry shoots that have thawed off die off and must be removed. If this is not done immediately after fruiting, drying out shoots will take away part of the nutrition from the young. Cutted shoots are best burned, as they may contain pathogens and pests. Since the ends of raspberry stalks are unproductive, they are advised to shorten them by 10-15 cm in spring. Summer pinching is also used to stimulate growth - in June, young shoots are pinched at a height of 90-100 cm, stimulating the growth of lateral shoots. By the fall, they manage to finish the growth and prepare for the winter. On such an shoot, 2-3 times more fruit buds are laid than on an unshaped one, respectively, and its yield is 2-3 times higher.
So that the shoots under the weight of the berries do not lie down and do not break, in the spring, when carrying out normal pruning, they are tied to trellises. To install trellis along the rows every 5–8 m, columns are set about 2 m high, 2-3 rows of wire are pulled between them, to which the shoots are tied, evenly distributing them every 7-10 cm. You can do without garter: Poles at a height of 130-150 cm pull two rows of wire at a distance of 10 cm from each other. The stems are passed between them, and so that the wire does not diverge, it is pulled together with clips. Apply and T-shaped trellis. The wire on it is pulled at a distance of 1 m from one another. Part of the shoots is tied to one side, part to the other - this is a two-sided inclined garter. Fruiting shoots are obtained inclined towards the aisles, and young shoots grow in the center of the row and do not interfere with the fruiting development.
It is important to harvest in time, as overripe raspberries lose transportability and become tasteless. For on-site consumption, the berry is harvested fully ripened, removing it from the base. For transportation over long distances - slightly immature. Recently, in the markets, berries collected with a grower have been very popular. The price of such berries is much higher than for berries without a spawner.