Features of vineyard care
- Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
- Part 2. Features of vineyard care
- Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
- Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
- Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
- Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
- Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
- Part 8. Groups and grape varieties
The implementation of all measures in accordance with the requirements of agricultural cultivation technology allows the crop to enter fruiting in the shortest possible time and for a long time to form high and high-quality berry crops.
Vineyard care before fruiting
When planting, the soil is compacted, trampled. Therefore, at the end of the planting period, we dig the soil between the rows or deeply loosen it, clearing the weeds and improving its air regime.
The planted grape seedlings take root within 2-3 weeks and already at the end of May-June the first green shoots appear. During this period, we gradually release young shoots and the upper part of the root system from the soil, by about 10-15 cm. We check for damage on the stem and the vaccine. We remove, if any, the rudimentary dew (surface) roots.
In the first autumn, we dig the soil under the grapes after leaf fall. In the middle lane we cover completely, laying the shoots in the dug ditches pre-dug.
In spring, when frost passes and warm weather sets in, we free the bushes from the soil shelter. As a rule, in the first year of vegetation, grape seedlings are not watered, but sometimes severe rainfed conditions develop, especially on depleted soils, and then one way out is to irrigate, combining them with top dressing. According to the state of the planted bush, we determine the frequency of watering. In the first month we water in 10 days, at a time no more than 5 liters of warm water with the addition of any complex complete fertilizer. Then 2 times a month and finish the irrigation season in August, so that the vine has time to ripen.
For 2-3 years we leave from frequent watering. Watering and top dressing of grapes is carried out if necessary. Fertilizers in top dressing are applied only on scarce soils, and watering in dry weather. During the growing season we systematically inspect young bushes, carry out protective measures (spraying with appropriate drugs) from diseases and pests.
The procedure for removing roots on an underground stem is called katarovka. During the vegetation in the first year of the life of the vine bush, we spend it twice. The first at the end of June and the second around mid-August. Each time, the roots are removed only on one side to a depth of 25-30 cm. The rootstock growth is removed completely. So that the roots do not appear again, we isolate the underground stem to this depth from the soil (cut along the hose, with a plastic bottle, etc.). After catharization, the soil is returned to the place, leaving a young growth open. Sometimes on plantings with grafted seedlings we begin katarovka only in the spring of next year, also in 2 doses. Katarovka is necessary to remove the roots of grapes from the zone of freezing of the soil and insufficient moisture, so we carry it out until all surface roots (30-40 cm) are removed.
Installation of supports
In the first year, in the fall or spring of the second year, we install a support system for the vine. The best is the trellis view of the support. In each row of grape seedlings, after 4-5 meters, we install wooden or reinforced concrete columns 2.0-2.5 m long. Dig them to a depth of 60-70 cm and anchor with an inclination from the vine bushes so that the wire does not sag. We stretch the galvanized wire in 4-5 rows after 40-60 cm.
With the stemless formation of a bush of grapes, the first row of wire is fixed at a height of 30-40 cm from the ground. With a standard form at the level of the stem with the lower arms of the bush. The garter is carried out by a figure eight, so as not to pull the vine. We use soft garter material. If the garter crashed into the stem, we remove it and again we tie it with a free eight.
Fruit vineyard care technology
- In the spring we carry out a control inspection of the vineyard and before budding, we carry out repair and other work: replant or plant new bushes, put them in the grooves of the cuttings.
- With the onset of stable warm weather (without returns of spring frosts), we open the vine bushes, freeing our heads from the covering land, remove the dry sagging bark and shoots, and begin the dry garter. We tie (always horizontally) perennial shoots to the support. During this period, the bushes can be treated with a 3% solution of copper or iron sulfate. Processing will delay the blooming of the kidneys, which will protect them from spring frosts and at the same time will be a good prevention against fungal diseases.
- On sleeping bushes in the winter we carry out preliminary pruning, and in the spring we proceed to the final pruning and loading of the vine.
- When the green shoots reach 20-25 cm in length, we begin the green garter, which we repeat several times during the summer. We tie the green shoots vertically. Those that we leave on future sleeves - horizontally. Around the middle of summer, we lighten the bush. We break or cut green vegetative shoots, thickening the bush, shading young clusters. This technique allows you to protect the grapes from disease and contributes to a more rapid ripening of the crop and vines.
The deep-penetrating root system, even in dry conditions, is able to provide grapes with sufficient water. However, to obtain high yields, vineyards, especially in the hot arid south, need watering.
Irrigation regime and top dressing of grapes
For irrigation to be effective, they must be carried out in certain phases of development of the vine with moderate rates. With a lack of water, small brushes and berries form, the root deepens to 14 m and grows horizontally to 2-3 m, inhibiting neighboring crops. With frequent heavy watering, the decay of the vaccination site, the stem and the roots begins. The plant may die. Watering is usually carried out from April to October. It is better to focus on the phases of the development of the bushes, since their offensive in the south and in the middle zone of Russia takes place at different times of vegetation. We carry out watering in the following periods and phases of the development of the grape bush:
- immediately after a dry garter, combining with the introduction of 50-100 g / bush of ammonium nitrate,
- the second watering is carried out in the phase of growth of the shoots of grapes (the first green garter). On poor soils, we simultaneously add 50-70 g / bush of ammophos,
- before flowering after irrigation, we carry out foliar top dressing with a 0.1% solution of boric acid. To avoid shedding flowers, at the beginning and during flowering, the vineyard should not be watered,
- the next watering is carried out after flowering in the phase of fine brush strokes. Sometimes watering is pushed back to the beginning of fruit ripening. During these periods, it is also useful to repeat foliar top dressing of grapes with a 0.1% solution of boric acid. Before watering, we add diammophos or superphosphate with potassium sulfate, add a glass of wood ash. After each watering, the soil is loosened in rows and rows.
After harvesting, before re-digging, we carry out water-loading irrigation (necessary in a dry autumn). We bring in 0.5-1.0 bucket / sq. m of humus or mature compost, double superphosphate (100-150 g / sq. m) and dig the vineyard. For late digging combine with shelter of bushes.
EM technology for home growing vines
Currently, technologies without the use of chemicals that provide environmentally friendly products are widely used. One of such promising technologies is the use of Effective Microorganisms (EM). The Baikal EM-1 preparation was created on the basis of more than 80 strains of beneficial microorganisms, which, when released into the soil or plant, effectively destroy pathogenic microflora. Naturally, their positive impact is not manifested in all respects from a single application. We need a 3-5 year system of measures for treating the soil and restoring natural fertility.
Key obstacles to the effective use of EM technology
- The drugs of this group have a short period of action, which increases the multiplicity of treatments.
- Care technology is selected for each particular variety.
- The interval of treatments during the growing season ranges from 10-12 days, which increases the time and cost of caring for the crop.
- Drugs are more effective in the prevention of diseases. With epiphytotic lesions, EM drugs are ineffective. In this case, connect biological products.
Positive aspects of using EM technology
- The drug, when applied to the soil, activates saprophytes, which process organics into a form easily digestible for plants.
- Protects aboveground and underground organs of plants from diseases.
- Physiologically active substances produced in the process of EM work to heal the soil.
- The resulting product is absolutely harmless to humans.
So far, this technology is applicable only in limited areas, including home growing vines.
To switch to EM technology for vineyard care, you must:
- buy Baikal EM-1 concentrate,
- before the growing season (at the end of winter) prepare from it a stock solution, according to the recommendation on the package,
- during the growing season, use the EM-1 stock solution to prepare the worker, which is used on the same day,
- prepare the EM-5 stock solution in advance and use it to prepare working solutions for treating plants from diseases and pests.
The use of EM agricultural technology
From my own experience
- After harvesting the grapes in the second decade of August, I clear the soil of weeds. Lightly water, provoking the growth of weeds. Watering provides optimal conditions for EM operation.
- I prepare a fresh working solution from the Baikal EM-1 base in the ratio of 100 ml of the base solution to 10 liters of warm clean dechlorinated water and spray the soil. I rake in the soil.
- I remove the grown weeds (end of September) and bring under each bush of grapes rotted manure, ripe compost, and other organics. Over time, organic fertilizers began to be applied after 1-2 years, since the soil in the plot is common chernozem with sufficient natural fertility. For the remaining warm period, EMs actively process introduced organic matter and destroy phytopathogenic microflora.
- In the spring, with the onset of warming (air temperature +10 - + 12 ° С), I spray the soil under the bushes with a working solution of Baikal EM-1 of the same concentration as in autumn. At the same time I process the vine with a working solution in the ratio of 1: 500 (10 l of water / 20 ml of the stock solution of the preparation). The concentration can not be increased, it is depressing to the plant.
- When the buds open, I repeat spraying the soil (40 ml / 10 l of water) with a surface seal of 5-7 cm. At the same time, I spray the aerial part of the bushes with a working solution in a ratio of 1: 500-1000 (10-20 ml of Baikal stock solution / 10 l of water) .
- I carry out the following tillage before flowering and then until the end of the growing season systematically every 2 weeks at the above concentration.
- To process the vine 2 weeks before flowering, I switch to the working solution EM-5 and then systematically once every 2-3 weeks I process the vine from diseases and pests with this compound. The ratio of the base solution and water for EM-5 is the same as for the preparation EM-1.
Processing plants usually end in August, and continue the soil until the autumn digging. Over 6 years of cultivation, the soil has lost its stickiness, has become more airy, breathable, and the content of available organic matter has increased.
In EM technology I use not only the Baikal EM-1 preparation, but also other biological products that are recommended in ecological farming. In a cold, protracted spring, when EMs are still “half asleep,” I use Bionorm-V, Novosil, and Valagro. To increase resistance to mildew and gray rot, I use the drug Albit. I use all additional drugs strictly in accordance with the recommendations. The most effective new technology worked on the following varieties: early Magarach, early Moldova, Codrianka, Lidia, Viorica, Solaris.
- Part 1. Groups and grape varieties