The best varieties of apple trees for different regions
Happy owners of summer cottages are always in a hurry to master their own hundredths for a minimum time. In the country I want to have the whole set of fruits and berries, and especially apples. And here, amateur beginners make the first and very serious mistake. Clutter up the garden with a large list of crops planted without regard to their environmental requirements and compatibility with neighbors. They are of little interest in the types of selected crops that will require appropriate space and area and buy tall varieties with a spreading crown. In the struggle for survival, such cultures will purposefully oppress their small neighbors.
In a small or large family, you need a different amount of fruit and berry products, but everyone wants to have fresh fruits and berries for a long time. The fulfillment of the desire can serve as a thoughtful selection of varieties of the desired culture. Breeders for different regions of the Russian Federation offer a huge list of varieties and on color applications they are all attractively beautiful. However, the garden consists of perennials (for apple trees 30-35 years old) and it is very difficult to correct a mistake.
To avoid mistakes, you need to think in advance what types and varieties of apple trees are suitable for your site, select the ones you like. Beginning gardeners should begin acquaintance with the varieties in winter, using their garden diary, in which you enter the desired selected varieties and your possibilities when planting an apple orchard or planting several seedlings in a small cottage or land.
Varietal Planning of the Apple Orchard
In a summer cottage of 6 acres for a family of 4-5 people, 5-6 varieties of apple trees are enough. Of these, 2 varieties of summer, 1 medium and 2 late. To design a relaxation corner, a decorative hedge, you can buy a couple of small-fruited varieties of apple trees (ranetka, Chinese, paradise apple and others). In the garden diary, compile a table in which briefly describe the desired qualities of the fruit and select varieties for them.
Apple trees can be divided into several groups
According to the habit of the bush: tall, semi-dwarf, dwarf, columnar.
Tall apple trees - crops with a plant height of up to 8 m, a well-developed root system that penetrates deeply into the soil (Zhigulevskoe, Belfler-Chinese). They are recommended to be grown only in areas where groundwater is located below 3 m depth.
Semi-dwarf apple trees - crops up to 5 m high (Elena). For them, a site with a groundwater table of no higher than 2.5 m is suitable.
Dwarf apple trees - low-growing crops, up to 2.5 m in height (Gloucester, Sunny). The root system is relatively shallow, located in a meter layer of soil. Varieties are suitable for areas with high standing groundwater (up to 1.5 m).
By resistance to cold: frost-resistant, heat-loving.
By species: summer, autumn, winter, late winter.
By taste: sour, sweet, dessert and others.
Varieties of apple trees for the middle and northern regions of Russia
For the middle and northern regions of Russia, characterized by a cold climate with prolonged frosts, when choosing varieties of apple trees, you need to focus on their frost resistance.
Winter-hardy varieties of apple trees are: White filling, Candy, Grushovka Moscow, Borovinka, Antonovka ordinary, Anis scarlet, Zvezdochka, Medunitsa, Sinap, Moskovskoe, Elena, Sunny and others.
Recently, breeders have proposed new frost-resistant varieties that can withstand lowering temperatures to -35 ° C: Marat Busurin, Lighthouse Zagoria, Winter Beauty, Imrus, Brusnichnoe, Narodnoye, Young Naturalist.
The first place in winter hardiness from the new apple varieties is occupied by the Gift to Grafsky, Skala, capable of withstanding 40-42 degree frosts.
Of the varieties of apple trees that are not resistant to frost, one can distinguish: Cinnamon striped, Melba, Mantent, Champion, Augusta, Korean, Vatutin, Freshness, Lobo, Bogatyr, Belfler-Chinese, Pepin. However, this property does not detract from their other qualities. They are suitable for middle regions with a short cold period, without persistent severe frosts.
Winter-hardy varieties of apple trees for the southern regions
When buying apple tree seedlings for your small garden, be sure to take an interest in its species. Crops intended for the middle and northern regions (even frost-resistant) in the southern conditions of cultivation can die from spring return frosts.
For the south, apple trees are the most suitable for weather conditions: Simirenko, Babushkino, Buzhor, Wagner, Golden, Glory to the Winner, White filling, Arkad yellow, etc.
Varieties of apple trees by species
Summer varieties of apple trees
By species, apple varieties are divided into summer, autumn, winter, late winter. Fruiting of summer and so-called dessert varieties begins in July, the main peak of harvesting occurs in August. But summer varieties do not have keeping quality. Shelf life of fruits does not exceed 1-2 weeks. They must be used immediately after harvest. Pleasant sweet-sour or sweet, juicy pulp, with a strong, often honey aroma, causes appetite.
The most prominent representatives of early or summer apples are Elena, Medunitsa, White filling, Mantent, Melba, Moscow Grushovka, Confetnoe, Borovinka, Korichnoye and others.
Autumn varieties of apple trees
The first apples of autumn varieties appear in late August. The main fruiting occurs in September. Their keeping quality is low, and its duration does not exceed 2-3 months. The pulp is juicy, sweet with sourness. When choosing a variety of apple trees for your garden, keep in mind that it is the summer and autumn varieties that are used for winter harvesting in the form of juices, compotes, jams and others. Winter-hardy autumn varieties can be stored for up to 3 months, while maintaining taste.
Winter-hardy autumn apple varieties include the varieties Narodnoye, Streifling, Oryol, Bessemyanka, Aromatnoye, Korichnoye, Koreyanka and others. Among them are fast-ripening (Oryol), sweet (People's). On the market you can always buy Korean woman, Cinnamon striped, other varieties of this type. Determine which taste and aroma you like best and enter the data in your garden diary.
For southern regions with “warm winters” apple, Champion, Aydaret varieties are suitable.
Winter varieties of apple trees
The main attention when choosing a variety of apple trees should be given to winter and late winter varieties, since they will provide replenishment of the body with vitamins in the most depleted period - February-April: Bogatyr, Antonovka, Welsey, Pepin, Zhigulevskoe, Zvezdochka, Aphrodite, Orlovskoye, Sunny and others.
Harvested in technical maturity in September-October. You can’t eat them immediately. Their taste is usually sour, some tart, the flesh is rough. They are perfectly stored for six months, and Simirenko, Bogatyr, Zvezdochka do not lose their qualities until 9 months of storage.
Many gardeners consider the Moscow variety to be the champion in winter hardiness and storage duration, whose fruits are stored until the new harvest. Winter varieties in the south, in the middle regions, require long warm autumn, hot summer. During this period, the apple trees accumulate the necessary sugars and aromatic compounds, giving a unique taste and smell to the fruits when biological maturity occurs, which occurs during the winter months (Simirenko, Antonovka).
Winter varieties of apple trees, as a rule, have good keeping quality. For long-term storage winter varieties with a sour taste of fruits are noteworthy: Berkutovskoye, Aphrodite, Bogatyr, Moskovsky later. The high density of the pulp and sour taste, limit their use in fresh form immediately after harvesting. Having good keeping quality, winter varieties gradually ripen during storage and by February-March they gain a whole bunch of tastes: juiciness, pleasant acidity, aroma.
Late winter varieties of apple trees
Of the late winter, the most famous varieties are Belfler-Chinese, Sinap, Lobo, Moscow, Freshness. Varieties Lobo and Freshness are well stored for a long time, but have mediocre winter hardiness, and the Chinese Belfler is tall and has a large crown size. All late winter (from the considered varieties) are characterized by large fertility.
Column-shaped varieties of apple trees
Colon-shaped apple trees, which have recently been quickly adapted in private garden estates, are assigned to a separate group. This type is remarkable in that it has no lateral branches. The culture grows in one trunk, the bush habit is 0.25-1.0 m, the crop is formed directly on the trunk, the yield is high.
Varieties of apple trees of this type are highly resistant to diseases and pests, resistant to frost, but have a shallow root system. The length of individual roots does not exceed 25-30 cm and are located so close to the soil surface that even shallow loosening can damage them. The surface root system of colon-shaped apple trees requires attention, they need watering (2-3 times a week, followed by mulching) and top dressing. Drip irrigation is suitable for them.
The best varieties of columnar apple trees that can be grown in the middle and Siberian regions are Vasyugan, Moscow Necklace, Senator, President, Ostankino, Triumph, Currency, Arbat, Medok, Gin, Dialog.
Of these, the most frost-resistant, well developed and form crops in the Siberian regions - Moscow necklace and Vasyugan.
Summer varieties of columnar apple trees include Malyuha, President, Medok. A very interesting variety of Medoc. Refers to summer-autumn varieties, but is late ripening. The fruits in technical ripeness are removed at the end of August.
High variability is characterized by winter varieties of columnar apple trees Amber necklace, Bolero, Currency, Moscow necklace. The late-ripening variety Moscow necklace is removed at the end of September. He retains his qualities until March.
Apple growing conditions
Apple trees on average grow and bear fruit for 30-35 years. Therefore, when laying an apple orchard, and when planting several seedlings, you need to be extremely attentive to the agrotechnical requirements of the culture.
Apple trees do not tolerate low places where spring frosts slide and stagnate. From return and prolonged frosts in all regions (including southern ones), complete freezing or severe damage to flower buds and blossoming flowers of this culture is possible. So, in the country, you need to pick up a plot that is elevated and protected from the flow of cold air. If possible, select a separate, with suitable conditions, plot for 5-8 apple trees. So a full-fledged care can be provided and the requirements for agricultural technology to be fulfilled.
In a small cottage, pay attention to the columnar apple trees. A small habitus of the culture will allow planting in a relatively small area up to 12-15 varieties. Some gardeners plant them in discounts, creating a unique elegant, "fragrant" path during flowering and ripening of apples.
Apple trees do not like shade. They need evenly lit areas, and not occupied by someone else's root system. Therefore, try to plant young seedlings at a distance from old trees. If the site allows, you can plant apple trees in small groups in places suitable for environmental requirements and agricultural technology. In the garden diary, on the general scheme of the site, mark the places allocated for apple trees. The next concern is the composition and quality of the soil in areas allocated under the apple tree.
Soil for apple trees
Neutral soils with a pH of 5.5-6.5 are needed for apple trees, they are provided with sufficient nutrients, especially nitrogen, with good drainage properties, medium density (loamy chernozems, ordinary), but airy and permeable with high moisture capacity. The most suitable are ordinary chernozems, loamy with a predominance of sandy loam, loess-like loams. On light soils, constant irrigation is necessary. Peaty, highly acidified soils with a close location of groundwater, with stagnant waters after rains and irrigation are not suitable. Apple trees with a deep root system on sandy or clay-sandy soils develop poorly and die early.
Having picked up a good location and type of soil, you can buy seedlings in spring and plant your own apple orchard.
Attention! We ask you to write in the comments to this article: what varieties of apple trees you grow, how much they satisfy you, how they correspond to the declared characteristics. Do not forget to indicate your region and features of agricultural technology. Thank!